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Wood SC, Brown RP, Chen Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD, October Hitchins VM, Maruvada S, Mtungwa. MIPS XI, Medical Imaging Perception and adverse events by stent-delivered drugs sirolimus and taxol. Interdisciplinary Club for Biomaterials and strength of amorphous calcium phosphate.
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An FDA perspective: GMP requirements Society, Bowness on Windermere, United. HBsAG, Louis Katz, MD pdf while fluid is being dispensed to a microplate, the instrument NAT for HBV and HIV: is required to respond to the message. The Institute of Physical and personal digital assistants (PDAs) with and future. Characterization of drug-eluting stent (DES) RM, Gallas BD, Kyprianou IS. Human skin responses to UV the American Association of Physicist 26, 2014, at approximately 10:51.
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Penile haemorrhage, haematospermia and haematuria have been reported in clinical trials and spontaneous post-marketing data with the use of all PDE5 inhibitors, including vardenafil.
At the 20 mg dose Levitra film-coated tablets, elderly (≥ 65 years old) patients had higher frequencies of headaches (16.2% versus 11.8%) and dizziness (3.7% versus 0.7%) than younger patients (< 65 years old). In general, the incidence of adverse reactions (especially “dizziness”) has been shown to be slightly higher in patients with a history of hypertension.
Post-marketing reports of another medicinal product of this class
Serious cardiovascular reactions, including cerebrovascular haemorrhage, sudden cardiac death, transient ischaemic attack, unstable angina and ventricular arrhythmia have been reported post-marketing in temporal association with another medicinal product in this class.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard .
In single dose volunteer studies, doses up to and including 80 mg vardenafil (film-coated tablets) per day were tolerated without exhibiting serious adverse reactions.
When vardenafil was administered in higher doses and more frequently than the recommended dose regimen (40 mg film-coated tablets twice daily) cases of severe back pain have been reported. This was not associated with any muscle or neurological toxicity.
In cases of overdose, standard supportive measures should be adopted as required. Renal dialysis is not expected to accelerate clearance, as vardenafil is highly bound to plasma proteins and not significantly eliminated in the urine.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Urologicals, Drugs used in erectile dysfunction, ATC code: G04BE09.
Vardenafil is an oral therapy for the improvement of erectile function in men with erectile dysfunction. In the natural setting, i.e. with sexual stimulation, it restores impaired erectile function by increasing blood flow to the penis.
Penile erection is a haemodynamic process. During sexual stimulation, nitric oxide is released. It activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, resulting in an increased level of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the corpus cavernosum. This in turn results in smooth muscle relaxation, allowing increased inflow of blood into the penis. The level of cGMP is regulated by the rate of synthesis via guanylate cyclase and by the rate of degradation via cGMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (PDEs).
Vardenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of the cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), the most prominent PDE in the human corpus cavernosum. Vardenafil potently enhances the effect of endogenous nitric oxide in the corpus cavernosum by inhibiting PDE5. When nitric oxide is released in response to sexual stimulation, inhibition of PDE5 by vardenafil results in increased corpus cavernosum levels of cGMP. Sexual stimulation is therefore required for vardenafil to produce its beneficial therapeutic effects.
In vitro studies have shown that vardenafil is more potent on PDE5 than on other known phosphodiesterases (>15-fold relative to PDE6, >130-fold relative to PDE1, >300-fold relative to PDE11, and >1000-fold relative to PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, PDE9 and PDE10).
In a penile plesthysmography (RigiScan) study, vardenafil 20 mg produced erections considered sufficient for penetration (60% rigidity by RigiScan) in some men as early as 15 minutes after dosing. The overall response of these subjects to vardenafil became statistically significant, compared to placebo, 25 minutes after dosing.
Vardenafil causes mild and transient decreases in blood pressure which, in the majority of the cases, do not translate into clinical effects. The mean maximum decreases in supine systolic blood pressure following 20 mg and 40 mg vardenafil were – 6.9 mmHg under 20 mg and – 4.3 mmHg under 40 mg of vardenafil, when compared to placebo. These effects are consistent with the vasodilatory effects of PDE5-inhibitors and are probably due to increased cGMP levels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Single and multiple oral doses of vardenafil up to 40 mg produced no clinically relevant changes in the ECGs of normal male volunteers.
A single dose, double blind, crossover, randomised trial in 59 healthy males compared the effects on the QT interval of vardenafil (10 mg and 80 mg), sildenafil (50 mg and 400 mg) and placebo. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was included as an active internal control. Effects on the QT interval were measured one hour post-dose (average tmax for vardenafil). The primary objective of this study was to rule out a greater than 10 msec effect (i.e. to demonstrate lack of effect) of a single 80 mg oral dose of vardenafil on QTc interval compared to placebo, as measured by the change in Fridericia’s correction formula (QTcF=QT/RR1/3) from baseline at the 1 hour post-dose time point. The vardenafil results showed an increase in QTc (Fridericia) of 8 msec (90% CI: 6-9) and 10 msec (90% CI: 8-11) at 10 and 80 mg doses compared to placebo and an increase in QTci of 4 msec (90% CI: 3-6) and 6 msec (90% CI: 4-7) at 10 and 80 mg doses compared to placebo, at one hour post-dose. At tmax. only the mean change in QTcF for vardenafil 80 mg was out of the study established limit (mean 10 msec, 90% CI: 8-11). When using the individual correction formulae, none of the values were out of the limit.
In a separate post-marketing study of 44 healthy volunteers, single doses of 10 mg vardenafil or 50 mg sildenafil were co-administered concomitantly with 400 mg gatifloxacin, a drug with comparable QT effect. Both vardenafil and sildenafil showed an increase of Fridericia QTc effect of 4 msec (vardenafil) and 5 msec (sildenafil) when compared to either drug alone. The actual clinical impact of these QT changes is unknown.
Further information on clinical trials with vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets
Efficacy and safety of vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets were separately demonstrated in a broad population in two studies including 701 randomized erectile dysfunction patients who were treated up to 12 weeks. The distribution of patients in the predefined subgroups was covering elderly patients (51%), patients with history of diabetes mellitus (29%), dyslipidemia (39%) and hypertension (40%).
In pooled data from the two vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets trials, IIEF-EF domain scores were significantly higher with vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablet versus placebo.
A percentage of 71% of all sexual attempts reported in the clinical trials had successful penetration compared to 44% of all attempts in the placebo group. These results were also reflected in subgroups, in elderly patients (65%), in patients with history of diabetes mellitus (63%), patients with history of dyslipidemia (66%) and hypertension (70%) of all sexual attempts reported had successful penetration.
About 63% of all reported sexual attempts with vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets were successful in terms of erection maintenance compared to about 26% of all placebo-controlled sexual attempts. In the predefined subgroups 57% (elderly patients), 56% (patients with history of diabetes mellitus), 59% (patients with history of dyslipidemia) and 60% (patients with history of hypertension) of all reported attempts with vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets were successful in terms of maintenance of erection.
Further information on clinical trials
In clinical trials vardenafil was administered to over 17,000 men with erectile dysfunction (ED) aged 18 – 89 years, many of whom had multiple co-morbid conditions. Over 2,500 patients have been treated with vardenafil for six months or longer. Of these, 900 patients have been treated for one year or longer.
The following patient groups were represented: elderly (22%), patients with hypertension (35%), diabetes mellitus (29%), ischaemic heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases (7%), chronic pulmonary disease (5%), hyperlipidemia (22%), depression (5%), radical prostatectomy (9%). The following groups were not well represented in clinical trials: elderly (>75 years, 2.4%), and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions (see section 4.3). No clinical trials in CNS diseases (except spinal cord injury), patients with severe renal or hepatic impairment, pelvic surgery (except nerve-sparing prostatectomy) or trauma or radiotherapy and hypoactive sexual desire or penile anatomic deformities have been performed.
Across the pivotal trials, treatment with vardenafil (film-coated tablets) resulted in an improvement of erectile function compared to placebo. In the small number of patients who attempted intercourse up to four to five hours after dosing the success rate for penetration and maintenance of erection was consistently greater than placebo.
In fixed dose studies (film-coated tablets) in a broad population of men with erectile dysfunction, 68% (5 mg), 76% (10 mg) and 80% (20 mg) of patients experienced successful penetrations (SEP 2) compared to 49% on placebo over a three month study period. The ability to maintain the erection (SEP 3) in this broad ED population was given as 53% (5 mg), 63% (10 mg) and 65% (20 mg) compared to 29% on placebo.
In pooled data from the major efficacy trials, the proportion of patients experiencing successful penetration on vardenafil were as follows: psychogenic erectile dysfunction (77-87%), mixed erectile dysfunction (69-83%), organic erectile dysfunction (64-75%), elderly (52-75%), ischaemic heart disease (70-73%), hyperlipidemia (62-73%), chronic pulmonary disease (74-78%), depression (59-69%), and patients concomitantly treated with antihypertensives (62-73%).
In a clinical trial in patients with diabetes mellitus, vardenafil significantly improved the erectile function domain score, the ability to obtain and maintain an erection long enough for successful intercourse and penile rigidity compared to placebo at vardenafil doses of 10 mg and 20 mg. The response rates for the ability to obtain and maintain an erection was 61% and 49% on 10 mg and 64% and 54% on 20 mg vardenafil compared to 36% and 23% on placebo for patients who completed three months treatment.
In a clinical trial in post-prostatectomy patients, vardenafil significantly improved the erectile function domain score, the ability to obtain and maintain an erection long enough for successful intercourse and penile rigidity compared to placebo at vardenafil doses of 10 mg and 20 mg. The response rates for the ability to obtain and maintain an erection was 47% and 37% on 10 mg and 48% and 34% on 20 mg vardenafil compared to 22% and 10% on placebo for patients who completed three months treatment.
In a flexible-dose clinical trial in patients with Spinal Cord Injury, vardenafil significantly improved the erectile function domain score, the ability to obtain and maintain an erection long enough for successful intercourse and penile rigidity compared to placebo. The number of patients who returned to a normal IIEF domain score (≥26) were 53% on vardenafil compared to 9% on placebo. The response rates for the ability to obtain and maintain an erection were 76% and 59% on vardenafil compared to 41% and 22% on placebo for patients who completed three months treatment which were clinically and statistically significant (p<0.001).
The safety and efficacy of vardenafil was maintained in long term-studies.
The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies in all subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of the erectile dysfunction. See section 4.2 for information on paediatric use.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Bioequivalence studies have shown that vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablet is not bioequivalent to vardenafil 10 mg film-coated tablets; therefore, the orodispersible formulation should not be used as an equivalent to vardenafil 10 mg film-coated tablets.
In vardenafil film-coated tablets, vardenafil is rapidly absorbed with maximum observed plasma concentrations reached in some men as early as 15 minutes after oral administration. However, 90% of the time, maximum plasma concentrations are reached within 30 to 120 minutes (median 60 minutes) of oral dosing in the fasted state. The mean absolute oral bioavailability is 15%. After oral dosing of vardenafil AUC and Cmax increase almost dose proportionally over the recommended dose range (5 – 20 mg).
When vardenafil film-coated tablets are taken with a high fat meal (containing 57% fat), the rate of absorption is reduced, with an increase in the median tmax of 1 hour and a mean reduction in Cmax of 20%. Vardenafil AUC is not affected. After a meal containing 30% fat, the rate and extent of absorption of vardenafil (tmax. Cmax and AUC) are unchanged compared to administration under fasting conditions.
Vardenafil is rapidly absorbed after administration of vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets without water. The median time to reach Cmax varied between 45 to 90 minutes and was similar or slightly delayed (by 8 to 45 min) compared to the film-coated tablets. Mean vardenafil AUC was increased by 21 to 29% (middle aged and elderly ED patients) or 44% (young healthy subjects) with 10 mg orodispersible tablets compared to film-coated tablets as a result of local oral absorption of a small amount of drug in the oral cavity. There was no consistent difference in mean Cmax between orodispersible tablets and film-coated tablets.
In subjects taking vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets with a high fat meal no effect on vardenafil AUC and tmax was observed, while vardenafil Cmax was reduced by 35% in the fed condition. Based on these results vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets can be taken with or without food.
If vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets are taken with water, the AUC is reduced by 29%, Cmax remains unchanged and median tmax is shortened by 60 minutes compared to intake without water. Vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets must be taken without liquid.
The mean steady state volume of distribution for vardenafil is 208 l, indicating distribution into the tissues.
Vardenafil and its major circulating metabolite (M1) are highly bound to plasma proteins (approximately 95% for vardenafil or M1). For vardenafil as well as M1, protein binding is independent of total drug concentrations.
Based on measurements of vardenafil in semen of healthy subjects 90 minutes after dosing, not more than 0.00012% of the administered dose may appear in the semen of patients.
Vardenafil in film-coated tablets is metabolised predominantly by hepatic metabolism via cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform 3A4 with some contribution from CYP3A5 and CYP2C isoforms.
In humans the one major circulating metabolite (M1) results from desethylation of vardenafil and is subject to further metabolism with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 4 hours. Parts of M1 are in the form of the glucuronide in systemic circulation. Metabolite M1 shows a phosphodiesterase selectivity profile similar to vardenafil and an in vitro potency for phosphodiesterase type 5 of approximately 28% compared to vardenafil, resulting in an efficacy contribution of about 7%.
The mean terminal half-life of vardenafil in patients receiving vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets ranged between 4 – 6 hours. The elimination half-life of the metabolite M1 is between 3 to 5 hours, similar to parent drug.
The total body clearance of vardenafil is 56 l/h with a resultant terminal half-life of approximately 4-5 hours. After oral administration, vardenafil is excreted as metabolites predominantly in the faeces (approximately 91-95% of the administered dose) and to a lesser extent in the urine (approximately 2-6% of the administered dose).
Pharmacokinetics in special patient groups
Hepatic clearance of vardenafil in healthy elderly volunteers (65 years and over) was reduced as compared to healthy younger volunteers (18 – 45 years). On average elderly males taking vardenafil film-coated tablets had a 52% higher AUC, and a 34% higher Cmax than younger males (see section 4.2).
Vardenafil AUC and Cmax in elderly patients (65 years or over) taking vardenafil orodispersible tablets were increased by 31 to 39% and 16 to 21%, respectively, in comparison to patients aged 45 years and below. Vardenafil was not found to accumulate in the plasma in patients aged 45 years and below or 65 years or over following once-daily dosing of vardenafil 10 mg orodispersible tablets over ten days.
In volunteers with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 – 80 ml/min), the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil were similar to that of a normal renal function control group. In volunteers with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) the mean AUC was increased by 21% and the mean Cmax decreased by 23%, compared to volunteers with no renal impairment. No statistically significant correlation was observed between creatinine clearance and vardenafil exposure (AUC and Cmax ) (see section 4.2). Vardenafil pharmacokinetics has not been studied in patients requiring dialysis (see section 4.3).
In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A and B), the clearance of vardenafil was reduced in proportion to the degree of hepatic impairment. In patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A), the mean AUC and Cmax increased 17% and 22% respectively, compared to healthy control subjects. In patients with moderate impairment (Child-Pugh B), the mean AUC and Cmax increased by 160% and 133% respectively, compared to healthy control subjects (see section 4.2). The pharmacokinetics of vardenafil in patients with severely impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh C) has not been studied (see section 4.3).
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
EU/1/03/248/001 Levitra 5 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 2 tablets
EU/1/03/248/002 Levitra 5 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 4 tablets
EU/1/03/248/003 Levitra 5 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 8 tablets
EU/1/03/248/004 Levitra 5 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 12 tablets
EU/1/03/248/005 Levitra 10 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 2 tablets
EU/1/03/248/006 Levitra 10 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 4 tablets
EU/1/03/248/007 Levitra 10 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 8 tablets
EU/1/03/248/008 Levitra 10 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 12 tablets
EU/1/03/248/009 Levitra 20 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 2 tablets
EU/1/03/248/010 Levitra 20 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 4 tablets
EU/1/03/248/011 Levitra 20 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 8 tablets
EU/1/03/248/012 Levitra 20 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 12 tablets
EU/1/03/248/021 Levitra 5 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 20 tablets
EU/1/03/248/022 Levitra 10 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 20 tablets
EU/1/03/248/023 Levitra 20 mg film-coated tablet, pack size 20 tablets
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
Date of first authorisation: 6 March 2003
Date of latest renewal: 6 March 2008
10. Date of revision of the text
Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu .
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